Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Ap Gov. Chapter Four Study Guide Free Essays

Common Liberties and Civil Rights Study Guide A. Part 4: a. Terms: I. We will compose a custom exposition test on Ap Gov. Part Four Study Guide or then again any comparative subject just for you Request Now Common Liberties: The legitimate established insurances against government. Despite the fact that our common freedoms are officially set down in the Bill of Rights, the courts, police, and lawmaking bodies characterize their significance. ii. Bill of Rights: The initial 10 changes to the US Constitution, which characterize such essential freedoms as opportunity of religion, discourse, and press and assurance defendants’ rights. iii. First Amendment: The sacred alteration that builds up the four extraordinary freedoms: opportunity of the press, of discourse, of religion, and of get together. v. Fourteenth Amendment: The established revision embraced after the Civil War that expresses, No State will make or authorize and law which will abbreviate the benefits or insusceptibilities of residents of the United States, nor will any state deny any individual of life, freedom, or property, without fair treatment of law; nor deny to any individual inside its ward the equivalent assuran ce of the laws. v. Fair treatment Clause: Part of the Fourteenth Amendment ensuring that people can't be denied of life, freedom, or property by the United States or state governments without fair treatment of law. I. Consolidation Doctrine: The lawful idea under which the Supreme Court has nationalized the Bill of Rights by making the majority of its arrangements appropriate to the states through the Fourteenth Amendment. vii. Foundation Clause: Part of the First Amendment expressing that, â€Å"Congress will make no law regarding a foundation of religion. † viii. Free Exercise Clause: A First Amendment arrangement that restricts government from meddling with the act of religion. ix. Earlier Restraint: A legislature keeping material from being distributed. This is a typical technique for restricting the press in certain countries, however is normally unlawful in the United States, as per the First Amendment and as affirmed in the 1931 Supreme Court instance of Near v. Minnesota. x. Slander: The distribution of bogus or vindictive proclamations that harm someone’s notoriety. xi. Representative Speech: Nonverbal correspondence, for example, consuming a banner or wearing an armband. The Supreme Court has concurred some representative discourse security under the First Amendment. xii. Business Speech: Communication through promoting. It tends to be confined more than some other kinds of discourse however has been accepting expanded assurance from the Supreme Court. xiii. Likely Clause: The circumstance happening when the police have motivation to accept that an individual ought to be captured. In making the capture, police are permitted legitimately to scan for and hold onto implicating proof. xiv. Outlandish Searches and Seizures: Obtaining proof in indiscriminate or irregular way, a training precluded by the Fourth Amendment. Most likely reason and additionally a court order are required for a lawful and appropriate quest for a seizure of implicating proof. xv. Court order: A composed approval from a court determining the zone to be looked and what the police are scanning for. xvi. Exclusionary Rule: The standard that proof, regardless of how implicating, can't be brought into a preliminary in the event that it was not intrinsically gotten. The standard forbids utilization of proof got through preposterous pursuit and seizure. xvii. Fifth Amendment: A sacred change intended to secure the privileges of people blamed for violations, including insurance against twofold peril, self-implication, and discipline without fair treatment of law. xviii. Self-Incrimination: The circumstance happening when an individual blamed for a wrongdoing is constrained to be an observer against oneself in court. The Fifth Amendment disallows self-implication. xix. 6th Amendment: A sacred alteration intended to ensure people blamed for violations. It incorporates the option to advise, the option to face observers, and the privilege to an expedient and open preliminary. x. Supplication Bargaining: A deal struck between the defendant’s legal advisor and the examiner such that the respondent will confess to a lesser wrongdoing (or less violations) in return for the state’s vow not to indict the litigant for a progressively genuine (or extra) wrongdoing. xxi. Eight Amendment: The protected change that prohibits unfeeling and s urprising discipline, despite the fact that it doesn't characterize this expression. In spite of the fact that the Fourteenth Amendment, this Bill of Rights arrangement applies to the states. xxii. Brutal and Unusual Punishment: Court sentences restricted by the Eighth Amendment. Despite the fact that the Supreme Court has decides that required capital punishments for specific offenses are illegal, it has not held that capital punishment itself comprises unfeeling and bizarre discipline. xxiii. Right to Privacy: The privilege to a private individual life liberated from the interruption of government. xxiv. Commercial center of Ideas: the open gathering where convictions and thoughts are traded and contend xxv. Inescapable Discovery: exemption to the exclusionary decide that permits the utilization of illicitly got proof at preliminary if the court establishes that the proof would in the long run have been found by lawful methods xxvi. The Smith Act: required fingerprinting and enrolling of all outsiders in the u. s. also, made it a wrongdoing to instruct or advocate the fierce topple of the u. s. government xxvii. Loathe Crimes: wrongdoings that include abhor against individuals as a result of shading, race, or ethnic root xxviii. Profanity: a hostile or revolting word or expression xxix. Miranda Warnings: admonitions that must be perused to suspects before addressing. Suspects must be instructed that they have the rights regarding quietness and advice b. Cases: I. Schenck v. US: Speech isn't intrinsically secured when the words utilized the situation being what it is available an irrefutable threat of realizing the shrewd Congress has a privilege to forestall ii. Gitlow v. New York: State rules are unlawful in the event that they are discretionary and absurd endeavors to practice authority vested in the state to ensure open interests. iii. Dennis v. US: The First Amendment doesn't ensure the option to free discourse when the nature or conditions are with the end goal that the discourse makes an obvious peril of considerable mischief to significant national interests. v. Yates v. US: v. New York Times v. US vi. US v. O’Brien vii. Tinker v. Des Moines: viii. Mapp v. Ohio ix. US v. Eichman: x. Close to v. Minnesota: xi. New York Times v. Sulllivan: xii. Miranda v. Arizona: xiii. Engle v. Vitale: xiv. Reynolds v. US: xv. Brandedneg v. Ohio: xvi. BSA v. Dale: xvii. Lemon v. Kurtzman: xviii. West Virginia v. Barnette: xix. Gideon v. Wainwright: xx. Smit h v. Collins: xxi. Wallace v. Jaffree: xxii. Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier: xxiii. Santa Clause Fe School Dist. V. Doe: xxiv. Boy troopers of America v. Dale: c. Questions: I. Insurances of the First Amendment were not initially reached out to the states on the grounds that each state had it’s own bill of rights. Be that as it may, if a state passes a law damaging one of the rights ensured by the Bill of rights and the states constitution doesn’t restrict this at that point nothing occurs. This is resolved from the Barron v. Baltimore case that said it just limits governments, not states and urban areas. Afterward however, it was changed by the decision of Gitlow v. New York that said that states needed to regard to some First Amendment rights. ii. The right to speak freely of discourse is the option to communicate assessments without control or restriction. There are numerous sorts of discourse: 1. Criticism: The distribution of bogus or malevolent proclamations that harm someone’s notoriety. 2. Representative Speech: Nonverbal correspondence, for example, consuming a banner or wearing an armband. The Supreme Court has concurred some emblematic discourse assurance under the First Amendment. 3. Business Speech: Communication through promoting. It tends to be confined more than some other sorts of discourse yet has been getting expanded assurance from the Supreme Court. iii. Essential limitations on discourse include: earlier restriction, government keeping material from being distributed; profanity, wrong discourse; defamation, bogus proclamations being distributed; criticize. The administration can restrain emblematic discourse if the demonstration was to scare. iv. Brief Explanations: 1. Search and Seizure: must have reasonable justification to look through close to home effects; can just take what they went into scan for 2. Benefit Against Self-Incrimination: this fifth alteration right shields a litigant from being compelled to affirm against oneself; it ensures against constrained tribute proof 3. Option to Due Process: if individuals accept their privileges are being abused, they reserve the option to a reasonable and fair hearing 4. Option to Counsel: singular right found in the 6th amendment of the constitution that requires criminal litigants to approach legitimate portrayal v. The three nuts and bolts tests the courts use to decide the legality of a law is the Lemon Test. It expresses that: 1. the resolution must have a common authoritative reason 2. its head or essential impact must be one that neither advances nor restrains religion 3. the resolution must not encourage â€Å"an inordinate government trap with religion. â€Å" The most effective method to refer to Ap Gov. Section Four Study Guide, Papers

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Tort of Negligence Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Tort of Negligence - Essay Example Per state the idea of carelessness doe not allude to a demonstration. As a matter of fact it is a lawful idea that will in general characterize the fundamental character of a demonstration in order to demonstrate it to be legitimately off-base. According to Blyth versus Birmingham Waterworks Co. (1856), â€Å"Negligence is the oversight to accomplish something which a sensible man, guided upon those contemplations which normally direct the lead of human issues, would do, or accomplishing something which a judicious and sensible man would not do.† However, when the idea of carelessness came surprisingly close to the English Tort Law, the following consistent and conceivable test was to choose with regards to what meets all requirements to be named as ‘ordinary care† and what was to be the nature and premise of the measure required to choose concerning whether a demonstration submitted by an individual, association or a gathering added up to carelessness. In that uni que situation, one needs to make reference to the much well known idea of ‘the man on the Clapham Omnibus’. ... The ‘man on the Clapham Omnibus’ spoke to a theoretical individual who is by and large sensible and accomplished without being sufficiently qualified to be known as an authority (Twining 64). ‘The man on the Clapham Omnibus’ spoke to the standard of prevailing upon which to check a defendant’s direct in an English Law Civil Action for Negligence. The sign of this idea was that it portrayed and set up a standard for discovering and building up the charges of carelessness on a litigant. It built up a general standard of care expected of any English resident while performing fluctuated parts of one’s individual or expert life. The genuine magnificence of this standard is that it will in general be sensible yet straightforward in its methodology and will in general bring the legitimate idea of carelessness inside the grip and extent of the supposed basic man. The very reality that this standard of care doesn't expect flawlessness with respect to as certainers pulverizes any chance with respect to the litigants to wriggle out of the grasp of law by turning to specialized language and drivel. It is likewise colossally others conscious and down to business as in it do perceives the way that a normal individual does not have the prescience to predict any hazard collecting by the dint of one’s activities. All things considered, it is keenly mindful and down to earth as in it urges on the normal individual the obligation to be conventionally judicious and cautious, without having a tendency to be unexceptionally or ridiculously faultless. There is no denying the way that even the most virtuoso specialists in law do will in general ignore and welcome the complexity and excellence inborn in the idea of ‘the man on the Clapham Omnibus’. In any case, actually this lawful colloquialism not just approved the idea

Monday, July 27, 2020

Health at Every Size and Eating Disorders

Health at Every Size and Eating Disorders Eating Disorders Treatment Print Health at Every Size and Eating Disorders How Health at Every Size Can Help With Eating Disorder Recovery By Lauren Muhlheim, PsyD, CEDS facebook twitter linkedin Lauren Muhlheim, PsyD, is a certified eating disorders expert and clinical psychologist who provides cognitive behavioral psychotherapy. Learn about our editorial policy Lauren Muhlheim, PsyD, CEDS Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on April 17, 2018 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on August 06, 2019 More in Eating Disorders Treatment Symptoms Diagnosis Awareness and Prevention Eating disorders are not only about body image. Nor have they only recently arisen in response to societal pressures to be thin. In fact, eating disorders date back to at least the 13th and 14th century, when it was documented that women were fasting to demonstrate religious devotion. However, today eating disorders occur in the context of a society obsessed with thinness, afraid of fatness, and permeated with diet culture. This makes recovery more difficult. Diet Culture Impacts Eating Disorders There are few mental disorders whose behaviors the culture admires and values as greatly as the eating disorder. People commonly praise people with restrictive eating disorders for their self-control and success at dieting or commitment to exercise. Imagine being praised for the symptoms of other disorders, such as excessive worry or the inability to get out of bed due to depression?  When it becomes normal for everyday discussions to revolve around diet suggestions or the shame of eating tasty food, recovery becomes even harder. Research on Weight Stigma The focus on eradicating obesity leads to discrimination and stigmatization of people living in larger bodies. In turn, this stigma encourages numerous negative psychological and health consequences. Studies have shown that weight stigma increases unhealthy eating behaviorsâ€" including binge eatingâ€"and decreases participation in physical activity. Weight stigma also has been shown to lead to depression, stress, low self-esteem, and negative body image. In fact, many of the negative health consequences commonly attributed to greater weight are now believed to be exacerbated by weight stigma itself. Weight Loss Research Most individuals are unable to maintain weight loss long-term. Estimates indicate that no more than 20 percent  of participants who complete weight-based lifestyle interventions maintain this weight loss one year later. By the second year, this percentage drops even further. Research shows that after five years participants regained, on average, 77 percent of their initial weight loss. Dieters often also gain back more than they initially lostâ€"a phenomenon called “dieting up the scale.” Diet failure can also lead to weight cycling: alternating periods of weight loss and weight gain. Weight cycling has been shown to lead to psychological and health problems. In addition, it can lead to reduced metabolic energy expenditure, which makes regain more likely. What Is Health at Every Size? Health at Every Size (R) (HAES) is an approach to health that shifts the focus from weight to health. It is a new philosophy that has emerged primarily since the late 1990s. It is promoted by the Association for Size Diversity and Health (ASDAH), who owns the phrase as a registered trademark. The primary goal of HAES is to promote healthy behaviors for people of all sizes. HAES is grounded in five principles: Weight Inclusivity: acceptance that bodies naturally come in a variety of shapes and sizes, and no size of body is inherently better than any other size of bodyHealth Enhancement: the focus on health rather than weight and attendance to additional disparities that contribute to health including economic, social, spiritual, emotional, and physical factors.Respectful Care: acknowledgment of weight bias and weight-based discrimination, and the commitment to work towards its end. This involves the adoption of an intersectional lens to understand different identities such as race, body size, gender, sexual identity, etc.Eating for Well-Being: flexible, individualized eating based on hunger, satiety, nutritional needs, and pleasureâ€"not external eating guidelines focused on weight control.Life-Enhancing Movement: encouragement of enjoyable physical activities for people in a range of bodies with a range of abilities, to the extent that they wish to participate. Does Research Support HAES? Several clinical trials comparing HAES to conventional obesity treatment have been conducted. Evidence from these six studies indicates that a HAES approach led to improvements in physiological, behavioral, and psychological measures. Subjects exhibited statistically and clinically-relevant improvements in blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels. They also displayed increased physical activity and decreased eating disorder symptoms and had increased self-esteem. No studies found any negative consequences associated with the HAES interventions. Subjects who received HAES interventions seemed to stay in the program longer. This is promising, considering that patients in weight loss programs often drop out How a HAES Approach Helps With Recovery Weight recovery is a prerequisite for recovery from anorexia nervosa. Aside from the necessity of restoring lost weight for patients with restrictive eating disorders, the treatment of eating disorders should not aim to address weight issues. Weight loss has not proven effective for patients with binge eating disorder. There is growing evidence that individuals who try to lose weight and maintain a suppressed weightâ€"that is, a weight lower than a previous higher weightâ€"are at increased risk for binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa. Individuals with bulimia nervosa who maintain a suppressed weight are less likely to fully recover. A persistent focus on limiting weight gain or losing weight can drive and maintain eating disorder behaviors. Research shows that continued focus on weight loss as a goal can lead to food and body preoccupation, eating disorders, weight stigma, and reduced self-esteem. Conventional thinking suggests that feeling bad about one’s body would motivate behavioral changes that promote weight loss; in fact, the opposite is true. Feeling bad about one’s body drives more destructive behaviors. By contrast, body acceptance can help promote healthier behaviors. Renouncing the dieting mindset and returning forbidden foods back into their diet can be a formidable challenge for patients surrounded by friends and family who talk about losing weight or avoiding certain foods. Adopting a HAES mindset can challenge the veneration of thinner bodies and promote body acceptance. The HAES approach shifts the focus from an individuals lack of conformity to the thin ideal to the recognition that the problem is in societys diet culture. It encourages you to accept your body’s setpoint: the weight to which your body tends to return when you don’t fixate on weight loss and instead respond to your body’s natural cues for hunger and fullness; the weight you to which you return between diets; and the weight you maintain without a lot of effort. This is the weight your body wants to be. While a HAES approach acknowledges a correlation between higher weight  and certain medical conditions, it questions whether this relationship is purely causal. The data suggest that behavior change may play a greater role in health improvement than weight loss itself.  We know that weight loss rarely works, and when it does, people lose only a modest amount of weight and maintain even less of it. Is weight loss, rather than an important end in itself, just an occasional and incidental result of the health improvements driven by these behaviors? Each body is different. Humans naturally come in all varieties of shapes and sizes. It can be hard to remember this in a world where  dolls  our children play with are all white and svelte. The shape and size of our bodies are largely determined by genetics, just as is the color of our eyes and skin. A HAES approach allows you to trust your body to maintain the body size and shape that is right for you. The HAES approach advocates for intuitive eatingâ€"listening to and acting on internal hunger and satiety cues and preferences. Those in recovery who have previously allowed proscriptive external diet rules to drive their food decisions may be especially helped by the HAES approach. HAES also recommends pleasurable movementâ€"exercising for the goal of pleasure rather than weight loss. Decoupling exercise from weight loss is challenging for many patients with eating disorders. How Can I Learn About HAES? There are many ways to learn more about HAES. Check out the following resources. Websites The Association for Size Diversity and Health (ASDAH) provides many educational resources and a list of providers.The HAES Pledge, Registry, and Resource List also provides resources and a provider directory. Video The Problem With Poodle Science by The Association for Size Diversity and Health is ?an animated video exposing the limitations of current research on weight and health Books Health at Every Size: The Surprising Truth About Your Weight, by Linda Bacon, Ph.D. addresses weight myths and gives the science behind HAES.Body Respect: What Conventional Health Books Leave Out, Get Wrong, or Just Plain Fail to Understand about Weight, by Linda Bacon, Ph.D., and Lucy Aphramor, Ph.D., RD includes the latest science on diets and health and why diets fail. It teaches how to adopt a HAES approach. There are also many blogs and social media groups and accounts focused on Health at Every Size. Try searching for #HAES online to find connections.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Essay on Singers Solution to World Poverty - 1219 Words

The writer behind â€Å"Singers Solution to World Poverty† advocates that U.S. citizens give away the majority of their dispensable income in order to end global suffering. Peter Singer makes numerous assumptions within his proposal about world poverty, and they are founded on the principle that Americans spend too much money on items and services that they do not need. Singer uses some extreme methods in order to achieve his goal of getting readers to truly believe in his ideas and change their values and lifestyles. He uses an informal and conversational tone in this article and he demonstrates his views in an emotional manner by giving several illustrations. The author’s main point is that it is morally wrong for affluent people to spend†¦show more content†¦Bob decides to take a walk so he parks his Bugatti by some nearby railroad tracks. In the distance he sees an out of control train flying down the tracks toward a child. Bob has to make a critical decision. He can redirect the train away from the child by flipping a switch, but by doing so his Bugatti will be destroyed in the process. Bob decides not to flip the switch and save his Bugatti. As a consequence of his decision, the child dies. According to Singer, Bob was wrong in choosing his Bugatti over the child, and most people would agree with Singer. Singer feels Bob was wrong for placing the love of a material object over that of the life of a child. The author tries to drive home the point that Bob’s situation is no different from our own. If we were to give up some of our luxuries, we could save the lives of starving children, and by not doing so, we are just as guilty as Bob. Therefore, according to Singer, we are not living up to our moral standards. The problem with this situation is that it is unique. In Bob’s scenario he was the only one who could make a difference, but in reality this is not the case. Bob could have sacrificed his prized Bugatti by throwing the switch, but instead he chose to forfeit a child’s life. To most people what Bob did was wrong. Nevertheless, is what Bob did morally wrong? Lets look at what that car represented to Bob. To Bob that carShow MoreRelatedThe Singer Solution And World Poverty Essay1015 Words   |  5 PagesMagazine, the article â€Å"The Singer Solution to World Poverty†, was written by philosopher Peter Singer. This article states that the solution to world poverty is for Americans to donate income, not vital for necessities, to aid overseas organizations. Throughout his argument, Peter Singer uses such strategies as ethos, pathos, and logos to build his attempt at a legitimate argument. Thousands of children die every single day due to hunger, and using various logical fallacies Singer seems to ring on theRead MoreThe Singer Solution to World Poverty752 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"The Singer Solution to World Poverty† You bought those new Jordans yet? How about the new iPad? What if I told you that you could possibly save a child’s life with that money? In his September 5, 1999 New York Times Magazine article â€Å"The Singer Solution to World Poverty,† Peter Singer goes in on American consumerism and its connection to world poverty. He also explains how donating $200 to overseas aid organizations like UNICEF and Oxfam America is enough to â€Å"help a sickly 2-year-old transformRead MoreThe Singer Solution And World Poverty949 Words   |  4 Pageschapter 20 ‘The Singer Solution to World Poverty’. In this chapter Peter Singer argues that normal spending of money on ourselves is immoral, and should be spent on the welfare of the poor. In this paper I am arguing against Singers theory because it contains errors and rest on a false premise. The premise of Singers argument is simple, people who make more money than is necessary for survival should and are morally obligated to give away all of their excess money to help the poor. Singer uses a coupleRead MoreThe Singer Solution And World Poverty987 Words   |  4 Pagesresponsibilities towards other individuals. In Peter Singer’s article, â€Å"The Singer Solution to World Poverty† he explains situations that may benefit poverty but in doing so explains a person’s morals and willingness of a person to do so. America a capitalist country that Americans work to making a living for themselves and for some their children. Working is a big factor in America that Singer uses â€Å"Dora a retired schoolteacher† (Singer 400) as an example of a situation. Though Dora knows nothing is freeRead MoreThe Singer Solution And World Poverty909 Words   |  4 PagesIn â€Å"The Singer Solution to World Poverty†, Peter Singer states that if Americans do not spend that much money in indulgences, they can actually stop many people from dying. He describes two hypothetical circumstances that support his Idea. In Dora’s case, she protects the boy when she discovered his deathly destiny. Unlike Bob’s case, He did not save the child’s life because he did not want to give up his luxurious car, because he invested his whole life savings on it. Singer adapt these two circumstancesRead MoreThe Singer Solution to World Poverty1062 Words   |  5 PagesIn the New York Times Article â€Å" the Singer Solution to World Poverty† the author Peter Singer argues that there is no reason why Americans don’t donate money to the needy when they can afford countless of luxury that are not essential to the preservation of their lives and health. Singer pursue the audience with two different situations trying to motivate the reader to donate money instantly. The fist situation comes from a Brazilian film, Central Station in which a woman called Dora, a retiredRead MoreThe Singer Solution And World Poverty953 Words   |  4 PagesIn â€Å"The Singer Solution to World Poverty,† Peter Singer argues that Americans are extremely materialistic people. People have the tendency to feel the need to go out and upgrade to the newest clothes or electronics. Even though there is nothing wrong with the possessions that they have now. Specifically, he points out somebody that goes out and buys a new very expensive suit. He suggests that instead of going out and buying that new fancy suit why not donate to relief programs that will help saveRead MorePeter Singer Solution to World Poverty3113 Words   |  13 PagesSeptember 5, 1999 The Singer Solution to World Poverty By PETER SINGER Illustrations by ROSS MacDONALD The Australian philosopher Peter Singer, who later this month begins teaching at Princeton University, is perhaps the worlds most controversial ethicist. Many readers of his book Animal Liberation were moved to embrace vegetarianism, while others recoiled at Singers attempt to place humans and animals on an even moral plane. Similarly, his argument that severely disabled infantsRead MoreAnalysis Of The Article The Singer Solution And World Poverty By Peter Singer1087 Words   |  5 PagesChioma Obi Professor White English 1301-81002 25 September 2017 The Right Thing to Do: Ending Poverty The article, â€Å"The Singer Solution to World Poverty,† by Peter Singer provides the argument that Americans should spend some of their income to help those in need, instead of using it on luxuries that they don’t need. Singer supports his argument by indicating that we are somewhat like the characters in the story. I have mixed feelings with Singer’s claim because he expects that people have moneyRead MoreAnalysis of â€Å"The Singer Solution To World Poverty† Essay693 Words   |  3 Pagesï » ¿A Critique For â€Å"The Singer Solution To World Poverty† In the essay â€Å"The Singer Solution to World Poverty,† philosopher Peter Singer addresses the issue of poverty by suggesting Americans give away most of their income to aid those in need. Singer believes that withholding income is the equivalence of letting a child starve to death. Therefore, Singer suggests the ethical thing to do to end world hunger is to give up everyday luxuries. Although donating a vast amount of money could help dying

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Was German ‘Eliminationist Anti-Semitism Responsible for...

â€Å"Was German ‘Eliminationist Anti-Semitism† Responsible for the Holocaust?† is a fascinating and somewhat discouraging debate that explores the question of whether German anti-Semitism, instilled within citizens outside of the Nazi Party, played a vast role in the extermination of Jews during the Holocaust . Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, author of â€Å"The Paradigm Challenged,† believes that it did; and argues quite convincingly that ordinary German citizens were duplicitous either by their actions or inactions due to the deep-seeded nature of anti-Semitic sentiment in the country. On the other hand, Christopher R. Browning, who has extensively researched the Holocaust, argues that the arguments of Goldhagen leaves out significant dynamics which were prevalent throughout most of Western and Eastern Europe during this period of history. Goldhagen presents his argument in a manner indicative of a person on the defensive; who seems hard-pressed at convincing the reader that anti-Semitic sentiments throughout Germany plays a key role in the genocide . The tenor of his presentation is quite rushed, yet this is somewhat understandable because his presentation is also quite authoritative and is filled with a remarkable amount of information that begs further consideration of its readers. Goldhagen challenges what he argues as being the prevailing views of historians concerning who is ultimately responsible for the atrocities that happened to German Jews in Nazi Germany. He sees theShow MoreRelatedWas German â€Å"Eliminationist Anti-Semitism† Responsible for the Holocaust?2341 Words   |  10 Pages | |Was German â€Å"Eliminationist Anti-Semitism† Responsible for the Holocaust? | |Issue 10 â€Å"Taking Sides: Clashing Views in World History† | | | German anti-Semitism played the main role in Holocaust and extermination of Jewish populationRead MoreHitlers Willing Executioners Essay example2875 Words   |  12 Pagesscrutiny by his academic peers. Goldhagen’s argument is that the usual historical explanations of the Holocaust do not add up. The Holocaust was not perpetrated by a small band of Nazis but by â€Å"ordinary Germans† in the hundreds of thousands. The abrupt transformation of Germans from bakers, bankers and bureaucrats to mass murderers was due to a particularly virulent strain of anti-Semitism. Goldhagen’s indictment focuses on the citizenry’s complicity in three of Nazi Germany’s institutionsRead MoreWhy Common Germans Took Part Of The Holocaust2222 Words   |  9 PagesThis investigation evaluates why common Germans took part in the Holocaust. In order to assess why common Germans took part in the Holocaust the investigation focuses on the participation and complacency of the German people during the Holocaust, specifically the extermination of the Jewish people, and the reasoning behind it. Different explanations for the German actions developed by a range of historians will be presented. The conventional reasons, like psychological and cultural, and the nonconventionalRead MoreThe Holocaust: The Biggest Hate Crime in the World1418 Words   |  6 PagesThe Holocaust is consider one of the biggest hate crime that the world has witness. It is a hate crime due to the fact that is directed toward a specific group of people. Individual chosen or group chosen because they represent a group believed to represent a group that the perpetrator is biased against. Everything started when Adolf Hitler became the leader of Germany, form 1934 to 1945. Adolf Hitler was born in Austria in 1889. Hitler rose to power in German politics becoming the leader of theRead MoreHitler s Willing Executioners And Christopher Browning s Book Ordinary Men1101 Words   |  5 Pagesaverage German soldiers and civilians were responsible for the holocaust. My research paper argues in favor of Goldhagen s book, the average German was responsible for the participation of he holocaust. At the end of world war ll the Jewish community and the the rest of the world were crying for justice because of the devastation of there homes. The crimes committed by the Germans were cruel and someone had to pay. Several Nazi leaders were held accountable for the actions of the Germans. Were theRead MoreHitlers Willing Executioners by Daniel Goldhagen1677 Words   |  7 PagesGoldhagens book Hitlers Willing Executioners. Goldhagen’s thesis re lies on the idea that since medieval times, a specific kind of eliminationist anti-Semitism had developed in Germany. According to Goldhagen, the German population was already open to the idea of eliminating the Jews. He also claims that when Hitler came to Power in 1933, rather than slowly convincing the Germans to commit mass murder, he merely gave them the opportunity to do what they have wanted to do for years. Goldhagen also inflatedRead MoreThe Transformation Of Deportation Of Mass Extermination2963 Words   |  12 Pagesoutright disgust against the perpetrators of the industrial scale mass-murder that was the Holocaust. This provides both positive and negative outcomes for those who seek to study the Holocaust and understand it from all angles. The demonization of key Nazi luminaries like Hitler and Himmler are highly appropriate given their ruthless and inhumane actions against European Jewry, ethnic minorities, their own German citizenry, and an international global standa rd of morality. Their reputations forRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pagesrecession of 2008) when one could quite plausibly argue that a new era had begun. A compelling case can be made for viewing the decades of the global scramble for colonies after 1870 as a predictable culmination of the long nineteenth century, which was ushered in by the industrial and political revolutions of the late 1700s. But at the same time, without serious attention to the processes and misguided policies that led to decades of agrarian and industrial depression from the late 1860s to the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Multidimensional Perspective In Learning Styles Education Essay Free Essays

string(186) " attack to instruction with an purpose to advance personal development through self-fulfillment, self-motivation and self-enhancement taking to self development \( Leadbeater, 2004 \) \." Introduction Personalisation in instruction has been discussed in fact-finding and policy documents for about a decennary. This construct of acquisition was used foremost in the United States and was subsequently extended and advanced in the United Kingdom as it became entrenched in a wider position for the reform of public services ( Hartley, 2007, Johnson, 2004 ) . UK Government introduced ‘customised individualized services ‘ in 1997 for making services that responded to the varied demands of persons more straight alternatively of offering one standardized solutions for all. We will write a custom essay sample on Multidimensional Perspective In Learning Styles Education Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Later the rule of individualized service came into consequence in the instruction sector and implemented at the secondary degree ( Judy Sebba, 2007, Skills, 2006 ) . Personalized Learning may be considered as an merger of teaching method, course of study and larning support to run into the demands of single scholars confronting the challenges of twenty-first century. It is frequently designed utilizing a figure of scope of theories, doctrines of instruction and acquisition to supply pupils with opportunities to be able to entree information and expertness, to lend thoughts and sentiments, and to match with other scholars and wise mans ( Hartley, 2007, Campbell et al. , 2007 ) . This method may utilize some net-based plans as Virtual Learning Environments ( VLEs ) or Learning Management Systems ( LMSes ) , treatment forums or chat communities ; and could be devised as a â€Å" blended † attack, where contents will be available remotely every bit good as straight through ICT and schoolroom and talks ( Robinson and Sebba, 2009 ) . Definitions of personalizing instruction have evolved over clip and have bit by bit emerged at both national and planetary degrees. Personalizing instruction is progressively going a cardinal driver of instruction reform and has the undermentioned common subjects ( Hartley, 2007 ) : aˆ? Learners are placed at the Centre aˆ? ICT plays a really of import function and is a cardinal enabler aˆ? It is a womb-to-tomb acquisition attack aˆ? It works through community based coaction I will discourse this newer but now ubiquitous theoretical account of supplying instruction in UK utilizing the four key points through critical literature reappraisal and compare this with other similar systems operated in New Zealand. The aim of this assignment is to pull a decision sing the strengths, failings every bit good as the public-service corporation of this construct in national and planetary position. Literature reappraisal An overview of personalisation in instruction Personalizing instruction has the undermentioned common subjects ( Hall and Moseley, 2005, Clarke, 2003, Hargreaves, 2005, Hartley, 2007, Johnson, 2004, Robinson and Sebba, 2009 ) . Learners are cardinal Personalised instruction incorporates a highly-structured attack to prosecute scholars to inform and authorise assessed through meaningful undertakings for the improved results for all and a committedness to cut down the spread among accomplishments ( Miliband, 2003 ) . Information and communications engineering ( ICT ) ICT enables each student with greater recreation and enhances interaction for supplying a infinite for personalised, flexible larning beyond any bound, i.e. unrecorded locally whereas learn globally ( Robinson and Sebba, 2009 ) . Lifelong acquisition Personalizing instruction is committed to lifelong acquisition and to the proviso of flexible acquisition environments and a figure of tracts for instruction to run into the demands of all scholars ( Hartley, 2007 ) . Communities of coaction Embracing the construct of personalizing instruction through schools will advance a ‘community of larning ‘ attack and develop the perceptual experience of webs holding strong familiarities with the place, community, local establishments, concern and services. Johnson had presented advanced narrations of this construct to the National College for School Leadership: ‘personalised larning ‘ : an instruction system where appraisal, course of study, learning manner, and out of hours proviso are all designed to detect and foster the alone endowments of every individual pupilaˆÂ ¦ aˆÂ ¦the most effectual instruction depends on truly cognizing the demands, strengths and failings of single pupilsaˆÂ ¦ ( Johnson, 2004 ) In 2003, David Miliband determined the definition to unambiguously admit the demand for intercession between instructors and pupils ( Miliband, 2006 ) : Personalised larning involves work in categories and groups and does non connote pupils larning on their ain. The nucleus of individualized acquisition is to guarantee that each pupil ‘s demands are assessed, endowments spotted and nurtured, involvements spurred, trouble to acquisition is removed and their possible fulfilled ( Beach and Dovemark, 2009 ) . The instruction, course of study and category administration of schools should be designed in such a manner that as many students as possible can be reached for every bit much of the clip as possible ( Stillwaggon, 2008 ) . A Working Group on instruction reform was established in 2003 to analyse ways of invention in educational offerings and recommended a figure of educational reform including the debut of ‘core larning ‘ and ‘main larning ‘ ; alterations to assessment schemes, betterment in vocational plans ; superior acknowledgment of makings, and making chances for scholars. The Tomlinson reappraisal has proposed the incorporation of sheepskins so that leaners from all subdivisions of the society can acquire an chance to detect and bask the usage of their abilities and endowments to the highest degree possible, in add-on to geting the basic capablenesss needed to win in big life ( Reform, 2004 ) . The UK Government decided in 2004 in the â€Å" Five twelvemonth scheme for kids and scholars † that it would connote reforms for significant betterments in every phase of instruction and kids ‘s services from the early old ages of a kid ‘s life to lifelong acquisition and grownup accomplishments ( Miliband, 2006 ) . Many faculty members and research workers later put visible radiation on this docket through their research and findings. For illustration, in 2004 Tom Bentley and Riel Miller presented personalisation in instruction as an germinating thought of client service applied in the educational sector. They have made it apparent that individualized acquisition is possible when a individual can place his demands and the service providers are capable of acknowledging and at the same clip reacting in the most appropriate manner to provide for the specific demand of that individual ( Bentley and Miller, 2006 ) . Charles Leadbeater discussed a method that was steady with a more brooding and engaged attack to instruction with an purpose to advance personal development through self-fulfillment, self-motivation and self-enhancement taking to self development ( Leadbeater, 2004 ) . You read "Multidimensional Perspective In Learning Styles Education Essay" in category "Essay examples" In personalized acquisition context, the scholar should be considered as an active, responsible, self-motivated and a co-designer of the scheme that determines how instruction should be delivered ( Hartley, 2009, La Marca, 2007 ) . Resources can be shared between schools through formation of webs and federations and each member school can be used as a gateway to the shared resources. Further, Johnson in 2004, made the undermentioned comments that highlights some of the complications between the involvement of the person in individualized acquisition and the demands to foster a shared sense of community while negociating the nature of that community. â€Å" As this thought is more of import as a political†¦ .than an educational program†¦ . †¦ .one which offers at best a partial apprehension of the intents of mass instruction in modern society and which speaks to a radically neo-liberal docket † ( Johnson, 2004 ) . In 2005 UK authorities published a white paper on school criterions. This paper acknowledged individualized acquisition as a manner of instruction which is practiced and should be adopted where appropriate. The study stated that – â€Å" Personalisation is non new. The best schools of UK should supply a trim instruction which combines: a?’ based on the demand of the scholar, excess little group or one-to-one tuition a?’ All kids will acquire chances to acquire extra support and tuition in countries they are interested a?’ exciting whole-class instruction a?’ grouping of pupils of similar ability and attainment degree to assist coordinated acquisition a?’ a flexible and rich course of study which can be easy accessed by every type of student and allows older people to blend academic and vocational acquisition a?’ extended usage of information engineering in the schoolroom every bit good as at place † . Maslow needs theory and its relation with personalized acquisition system Abraham Maslow in his ‘Hierarchy of Human Needs ‘ proposed that all people have a set of basic demands: physiological, safety, belonging and esteem demands, and he constructed a hierarchy which suggested that ‘D necessitate ‘ ( lack demands ) must be met to able one to develop into their possible and realize the ego ( Sirgy, 1986, Rowan, 1999 ) . Self-actualization and transcendency can be addressed one time the four lack demands have been met and so one makes the most of one ‘s abilities. At this phase one can work towards carry throughing one ‘s possible and going the best of one ‘s capableness. Figure 1: Maslow Hierarchy of Needs ( Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cbc.ca/radio2/programs/maslow.png ) In conformity with it, UK Department for Education and Skills ( DfES ) in 2006 proposed five constituents of individualized acquisition, as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2: The five constituents of individualized acquisition ( Image beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //nationalstrategies.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/node/83151 ) The inner nucleus in this figure focuses on conventional acquisition patterns, but personalizing the school experience has the key for the successful execution ( Clarke, 2003, Allen, 2002 ) . The five constituents are: Appraisal for Learning Effective instruction and acquisition Curriculum entitlement and pick Organizing the school Beyond the schoolroom This is in line with the Maslow ‘s theory. Interestingly, there is a important relationship between Maslow ‘s theory of demands and the New Zealand Curriculum ‘s construct of Hauora – or wellbeing. In this theoretical account, the construct of well-being encompasses the physical, mental and emotional, societal, and religious dimensions of wellness. So we can compare these systems present in two states ( Crooks, 2002 ) . Comparison of the Individualized Learning vision, UK A ; NZ Although both UK and New Zealand portion some common vision towards personalized larning but there are important differences in the attacks to accomplish them. The comparing of the individualized learning vision of the two states are summarized below – Personalizing Learning UK Department for Children, Schools A ; Families Personalizing Learning NZ Ministry of Education Effective instruction A ; acquisition: Emphasis to develop the competency and assurance of every scholar and a focal point on instructors ‘ scope of learning accomplishments Effective instruction: Supplying professional development for instructors to elate their accomplishments and design programmes to run into the diverse demands of pupils Appraisal for Learning ( AfL ) : It implies the utilizations of grounds and feedback to observe the position of students, what they require to make furhter and how best to acquire accomplish this. Appraisal for Learning: Having an in-depth cognition of the strengths and failings of every pupil. A flexible course of study: Learning-focused ( instead than content-focused ) to advance ‘real ‘ acquisition state of affairss and fiting the purposes of the National Curriculum to the countries of their acquisition profile. Course of study: Teachers are given with more chances to use their professional cognition and sets to the way of learning in schools. Beyond the schoolroom: Constructing partnerships beyond the school is the key for both back uping acquisition in the schoolroom and heightening pupil wellbeing. Strong and occupied communities: Strong partnerships between place and early childhood services and schools for informing parents who need to be involved in their kid ‘s acquisition. Organizing the school: School leaders and instructors maintain high quality instruction and acquisition A ; guarantee that pupil public presentation and student public assistance Professional leading: Professional leaders of early childhood services and schools provide leading of acquisition, making the conditions for personalizing acquisition. Highly supportive system: The function of authorities and cardinal bureaus is non to run schools but to assist them construct the capacity to run into the demands of their pupils. Discussion The implicit in grounds for which we have to travel a long manner to implement true personalized instruction system are multifaceted and the instruction reforms are needed to successfully implement personalized instruction system in UK or any other developed state. Here I want to concentrate on few cardinal points – Resource Gap: Lack of resources may be the main ground why personalisation has non advanced farther ( Beach and Dovemark, 2009 ) . Education sector are authoritative maximization demands ; one can ever happen demands that have non been met and one can ever reason for extra resources. Hence resources apportioning governments must ever be inactive on its watchfulness over the educational sector and maintain a steadfast restraint on costs, lest it grows beyond all bounds. Institutionalised conservativism may be considered as an every bit of import ground for the disagreement between theory and pattern for the educational system ( Campbell et al. , 2007, Fielding, 2006 ) . The operators of the system ( instructors ) are older than those who are utilizing the system ( pupils ) make it vastly hard to avoid conservativism. Procedure related nostalgia to maintain the educational system from reforming contributes as a 3rd factor. The impression that the younger coevals must travel through a clip tried procedure like the old coevalss are making opposition from different subdivisions of the society every clip the educational system is aimed to reform ( Tharinger et al. , 1996 ) . The inactiveness inbuilt in the present educational system is a critical ground for slow reform. But one should non overrate the impacts of reforming the educational system on society. The frequence of alteration in modern-day society ( added up with womb-to-tomb larning construct ) develops the impression that the position quo in educational system has no monopoly on leaving accomplishments and cognition, but it is still it has the function of the foundation for the womb-to-tomb acquisition. On the contrary it can be said that the impression of womb-to-tomb larning as such what is proposed in a personalisation of larning ( Beach and Dovemark, 2009 ) . The huge scope of larning being conducted after the completion of formalistic instruction in existent life does non normally taught in formal instruction scenes instead the capable affair and topographic points are frequently chosen by the scholar. Future deductions of Individualized Learning The educational system is of all time altering from the really being. One attend to larning for future addition instead than immediate fulfilment. ‘Non scholae, sed vitae discimus ‘ . Since the hereafter does non be, so one has to pull a logical decision or may be a qualified, witting conjecture. The thoughts are applicable with even greater accent to determine up the educational system, because it is so much futuristic. The elements may hold a greater consequence chiefly on the attitude to people, motive, the demands of society, and the technological possibilities. Personalised acquisition and people Conformity has a long history. In the present scenario the society is based on experience. That made experienced one ‘smarter ‘ than immature one, because it takes clip to garner experience. Hence the seniors ( the instructors ) had authorization. The hereafter should be the mutualism among the stack holders of the system. Personalised acquisition and motive Educational system should recognize that the ways for motive have changed. The indispensable qualities of a modern educational system are supposed to leave to pupils without any signifier of menaces instead at a reciprocated respectful manner. Personalised acquisition and society The precedences of society will be decided by the development of a cognition society – a society that will turn from both optimistic and pessimistic causes. The Knowledge Society is the result of the amount of our collected cognition continues to turn at an exceeding rate. Our hereafter chance lies upon the cognition based society through the execution of individualized acquisition ( Wallace, 2008 ) . Personalised acquisition and engineering The turning significance of the attitude-shaping map is another paradigm of the insatiability of the educational sector. A more individualized educational system needs the invention of ICT for efficiency additions and traveling towards right way ( Haldane and Wallace, 2009 ) . The engineering ( Information engineering ) through the usage of synergistic systems, contribute to increased end product in the instruction sector and thereby do executable for more individualized instructions ( Robinson and Sebba, 2009 ) . Decision The term ‘Zeitgeist ‘ and the educational system already have seen a considerable dissension. We have supported individuality which elevates the exclusivity of each individual and therefore a greater control over one ‘s ain life is promoted for each person. But on the contrary, we have an educational system that still to a considerable extent has a fixed content and fixed timing. As it is implausible to return to a superseded position, it is seemed clear that is the educational system will hold to accommodate with individualized acquisition. The growing towards a more individualized instruction will be held back by the inquiries about the insatiability of the educational system. It therefore seems unbelievable that a more individualized instruction is possible without at the same time retrieving the efficiency of the educational system. Since this will affect some investings, a high economic growing will give assurance a more individualized instruction. A more individualized instruction is non without its restrictions. It becomes more complicated to measure the single pupil ‘s additions from his personally designed manners of surveies. When individualized construct in instruction sprouts, at the same clip, concerns develops that a more irregular instruction system may sabotage coherence among the stakeholders of the society. The system which eases the pupils ‘ tract through acquisition in a meaningful manner will hence be much less dissentious than one that besides personalises the substances that is to be learnt. But this must be implemented through an thorough scrutiny of the preexistent conditions within the educational sector that shows the significant advancement already has been made sing timing. The cardinal challenge to educational systems in modern-day societies is that the remainder of society, particularly the labour market, will necessitate that the system produces more and better skilled people. The go oning enlargement within the planetary division of labor agencies that the states must go on to nurture the Knowledge Society if they wish to maintain up and augment their current criterion of life. No 1 can oblige the devising of more and better qualified people, market has to carry them. And a more individualized instruction will be smarter than the bing, more inflexible, educational systems. As individualized acquisition is still in its developing phases there is a small indicant of the overall success it may finally leave. However, there is important grounds that many of the mechanisms of individualized acquisition attacks have been successful in a figure of contexts around the universe. How to cite Multidimensional Perspective In Learning Styles Education Essay, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Public Distribution System in India Essay Example

Public Distribution System in India Paper Public Distribution System is one of the important elements of Governments Foods Security System. Through PDS goverment facilitates the supply of food grains to the poor at subsidized rates. PDS involves management of supply of essential commodities at affordable prices to the identified beneficuaries. It also works as instrument for moderating the open market prices of food. Food security at each level of individual is the first requirement for a healthy and productive life.  The concept of PDS in India appeared during 1942 for the 1st time as a result of shortage of food grains during the 2nd world war. Consequently government started intervention in the release of food . rationing in India was started in 1939 in bombay by British government as a measure to ensure equitable distribution of food grains to the urban consumers in the face of rising prices. Due to rising inflationary pressure in the economy government had to reintroduced rationing in 1950. India retained public distribution system of food grains as a focused social policy in 1951. in the First Five Year Plan, the scope of PDS was broadened to cover all such areas which suffered from stable food shortages. However food production dropped in the year 1958 when the 2nd plan had just commenced. This factor forced the government to restart procuremetn of food grains and cereals and control on trading of food grains. Indias Food Security System with a network of 4. 8 lakhs fair price shops is the largest retail system of its type in the world. We will write a custom essay sample on Public Distribution System in India specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Public Distribution System in India specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Public Distribution System in India specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Since 1951 PDS is deliberate social policy with the objectives of : (i) Providing food grains and other essential items to vulnerable sections of the society at reasonable (subsidized) prices (ii) To put an indirect check on the open market prices of various items and (iii) To attempt socialization in the matter of distribution of essential commodities.   The history of PDS in India can be divided into four phases . The first phase was from its origin to 1960, a period when the system was extended to other cities. During this phase distribution of food was usually dependent on imports of food grain. The second phase from 1960 to 1978 introduced many organisational changes. Specially in response to the food crisis of the mid-1960, the goverment of India took a hoilstic approach to food security, procurement and storage. The third phase, from 1978 to 1991 was marked by large growth of PDS, supported by domestic procurement and storage. The fourth phase , from 1991 to present, is one in which policy of universal PDS has been replaced by a targeted policy in line with the objectives of liberlization. Thus, over the entire period, the PDS grew from a rationing scheme in selected cities to a national universal programme of food distribution and then to a policy targeted at the income-poor. The policy purpose is to produce available storage ability necessary for (i) buffer and ready stock of food grains to supply to the Public Distribution System and (ii) the public sector which are engaged in building large scale storage/ warehousing capacity, namely, Food Corporation of India (FCI), Central Warehousing Corporation (CWC) and 17 State Warehousing Corporations (SWCs). While the ability accessible with FCI is used mainly for storage of food grains, but CWC and SWCs is used for storage of food grains and also other notified commodities. The Warehousing (Development and Regulation) Act 2007 was enacted and notified in September 2007. dependence on the capacity under Cover and Plinth (CAP). There are three agencies in General Warehousing. The Act ensures that the farmers are able to keep their goods in certified warehouses and se warehouses receipt as a negotiable instrument. With the full execution of this Act, farmers would find it easy to take loans from commercial banks against negotiable warehouse receipts and not resort to distress sales to take care of their urgent cash needs. The Act has since been given effect to in September, 2010. A regulatory Authority namely Warehousing Development Regulatory Authority (WDRA) has been set up on 26. 10. 2010 under the Act to register and regulate warehouses issuing negotiable warehouse receipts and to implement other Provision of the Act. Food Procurement Policy Public Distribution System in India The stockpile of food grains available with the government agencies as on 1 July 2002 was 63. 01 million tonnes (mt) —( 21. 94 mt of rice and 41. 07 mt of wheat). This was well above the prescribed buffer stock norms. While the changing demand patterns is one reason for the buildup of surplus food grains, another factor is the propensity of consecutive governments to fix minimum support prices (MSP) for paddy and wheat in excess of the levels prescribed by the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices Transportation and Storage: Transportation and storage from procurement centre to the regional depots is the responsibility of FCI. Transportation is generally arranged through private contractors. Lifting of grains from the regional depots to the issue centre is mainly the responsibility of the civil supplies corporation of the state government. From the issue centre to FPSs it is the responsibility of FPSs, except in state of Andhra Pradesh where the state government provides transportations . Proper storage of such large stocks is an important aspect of Public Distribution System (PDS). The main goal is to keep the cost down and to prevent deterioration in stocks. The various agencies are engaged in this process. But there is chances of corruption during the transportation as a case came into existence in Ambala district of Haryana state . A truck having 200 KT. heat as a part of AAY scheme under PDS was taking it in the open market to be sold was captured by the police. Hence there is possibility of corruption in PDS, if the transportation system is hired from private agencies. Goals of PDS The goal of PDS does not restrict itself with the distribution of rationed articles. Making available adequate quantities of essential articles at all times, in places accessible to all, at prices affordable to all and protection of th e weaker section of the population from the vicious spiral of rising prices is the broad spectrum of PDS. More specifically, the goals of PDS are: Make goods available to consumers, especially the disadvantaged / vulnerable sections of society at fair prices; Rectify the existing imbalances between the supply and demand for consumer goods; Check and prevent hoarding and black marketing in essential commodities; Ensure social justice in distribution of basic necessities of life; Even out fluctuations in prices and availability of mass consumption goods; and Support poverty-alleviation programmes, particularly, rural employment programmes, (SGRY/SGSY/IRDP/ Mid day meals, ICDS, DWCRA, SHGs and Food for Work and educational (feeding programmes). Problems: The problems of Public Distribution System have not been uniform in the country. In some states the administration is weak and corrupt. In these states deficiencies regarding huge shortage of stocks, fake supply entries in ration cards, diversion of commodities for sale to open market and bogus ration cards are noted. PDS suffers from irregular and poor quality of food grain made available through Fair Price Shops (FPS). The position in rural areas in this respect is much worse Public Distribution System in India than urban areas . The PDS in rural areas has not been given much attention. Most of the FPSs are economically non- viable which is The main reason for this low rate of commission. The storage facilities in India are not sufficient to cope with the problems. There is also a possibility of corruption at local level. The procurement system in India is not uniform. The distribution system of essential commodities is so meager that it can hardly suffice the need of a family. And even for this the consumers have to make repeated visits to the ration shops in their respective areas. Most of the times they come back empty handed with assurance that ration would be made available to them in the next week. The Challenges There are many systemic challenges that plague the PDS system today and the key ones are described below: 1. PDS Leakages The TPDS currently suffers from a number of issues that make it difficult for it to meet its objective of ensuring that the allotted quota of specified food articles reaches the intended underprivileged/needy segments of society: A large number of families living below the poverty line have not been enrolled and therefore do not have access to ration cards A number of bogus ration cards which do not correspond to real families, exist in the BPL AAY categories. Food drawn on the basis of these bogus cards is a significant leakage from the system, as it does not reach the intended beneficiaries. Additionally, these extra cards inflate the number of BPL and AAY cards in circulation and further reduce the amount of food available to every rightful beneficiary family. A number of instances where benefits are being availed in the names of rightfully entitled families without their knowledge. This shadow ownership is possible due to inefficiencies in ration card issuance and distribution Errors in categorization of families that lead to BPL families getting APL cards and vice versa. A significant portion of benefits provided to the APL category under the TPDS, are not availed by the intended beneficiaries and are instead diverted out of the system. In summary, targeting is not serving its real purpose, as the beneficiaries do not get food grains in accordance with their entitlements. Scale and Quality of Issue – The scale of issue and the quality of food grains delivered to the beneficiary is rarely in conformity with the policy. Many FPS are open only for a few days in a month and beneficiaries who do not visit the FPS on these days are denied their right. The FPS also use multiple excuses to both charge higher rates and deliver reduced quantity of food grains. There are also significant differences in the manner in which the Centre and States arrive at the number of BPL families. This mismatch usually means lower allotments for each family as states arrive at higher numbers of BPL families. As this problem may not go away even after reduction of duplicates, a standard way of doing this must be arrived at for each state to resolve this issue. System Transparency and Accountability –The most serious flaw plaguing the system at present is the lack of transparency and accountability in its functioning. The system lacks transparency and accountability at all levels making monitoring the system extremely difficult. Public Distribution System in India Grievance Redressal Mechanisms – There are numerous entities like Vigilance Committee, Anti-Hoarding Cells constituted to ensure smooth functioning of the PDS system. Their impact is virtually non-existent on the ground and as a result, malpractices abound to the great discomfiture of the common man. Apart from the challenges described, transportation of food grains and appointment of dealers of Fair Price Shops have also become difficult issues. Viability of the FPS is already a major concern and this would get amplified once PDS leakages are brought under control.