Friday, March 20, 2020

6 Ways To Use the Spanish Preposition En

6 Ways To Use the Spanish Preposition En If you were told that en is a Spanish preposition and were asked what it means, you most likely would guess in or on. And youd be right in both cases. But en can also be translated as at, about, by, on top of, upon, inside of, and other ways, so its use isnt as straightforward as it may appear. The Spanish Preposition "en" The Spanish preposition en frequently means in or on when referring to physical locations.En can also be used to mean in in certain time expressions.En is so used in phrases and following certain verbs with translations that arent always predictable. These idioms and verb phrases must be learned individually. Fortunately, when en doesnt mean on or in, you can usually tell by the context what is meant. Like some other prepositions, en can seem quite versatile to the foreigner. Here are the most common uses: Using En for Locations and Meaning 'In' When it is used in describing locations, en can mean in or inside of. As in the third and fourth examples here, en can also be used this way figuratively. El dinero est en la caja. (The money is in the box.)Vivo en Espaà ±a. (I live in Spain.)La crisis sà ³lo est en la mente de las personas. (The crisis is only in the minds of people.)Hay cien cantavos en un dà ³lar. (There are 100 cents in a dollar.) Using En in Time Expressions En can be used in time expressions much as it is in English with periods of time other than days of the week. Llegamos por tren en una hora. (We arrive by train in one hour.)Trabajarà © en el verano. (I will work in the summer.)Esperan aprobar la ley en dos semanas. (They hope to pass the law in two weeks.) With days of the week, a preposition isnt needed: Llegamos el lunes. (We arrive on Tuesday.) Using En for Locations and Meaning 'On' En is frequently used to meet on in the sense of meaning on top of or placed on. El dinero est en la mesa. (The money is on the table.)Fijà ³ los carteles en la pared. (He put the posters on the wall. Note that the preposition a also could have been used here: Fijà ³ los carteles a la pared.)Las manchas en la cara pueden aparecer por diversos motivos. (Blemishes on the face can appear for various reasons.) Using En in Expressing Values Although not particularly common, en is sometimes used instead of por when referring to costs or similar values: Vendià ³ el carro en $2.000. (He sold the car for $2,000.)Comprà ³ el mà ³vil en un buen precio. (She bought the cellphone for a good price.)Tenemos el cojà ­n ideal para ti en sà ³lo $349.00 pesos. (We have the ideal cushion for you for only 349 pesos.) En in Miscellaneous Expressions Numerous phrases or idioms use en. Most of these need to be learned as phrases rather than simply translating word for word: en broma, as a jokeen busca de, in search ofen cambio, on the other handen casa, at homeen espaà ±ol, in Spanishen honor de, in honor ofen la actualidad, presentlyen la radio, on (the) radio; en la televisià ³n, on (the) televisionen lugar de, instead of, in place ofen secreto, in secreten seguida, immediatelyen serio, seriouslyen todas partes, everywhereen vez de, instead ofen vilo, anxiously awaitingen vista de, in view ofen vivo, live (as in live TV)en voz alta, in a loud voice; en voz baja, in a soft voice. Using En With Certain Verbs When used with many verbs, en is translated as in or on: ayudar en algo, to help in doing somethingcompeter en, to compete inconcentrarse en, to concentrate onconcurrir en, to concur inconfiar en, to trust in; creer en, to believe in; esperar en, to trust inempeà ±arse en, to persist in;insistir en, to insist onintervenir en, to participate inpersistir en, to persist inreflejar en, to reflect onresultar en, to result in. But it can have other translations as well: actuar en consecuencia, to act accordinglyadentrarse en, to get intoadvertir en, to noticeaplicarse en, to devote oneself tocaerle en suerte, to get luckycoincidir en que, to agree thatcomprometerse en, to get involved withconcurrir en, to meet atconsentir en, to agree toconsistir en, to be composed ofconvenir en, to agree toconvertir(se) en, to change intoequivocarse en, to be mistaken aboutextenderse en, to spread overfijarse en, to noticeingresar en, to be admitted toinscribirse en, to register forjuntarse en, to meet atmolestarse en, to bother bypensar en, to think aboutquedar en que, to agree thatreparar en, to noticevacilar en, to hesitate to.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Synonyms for Works

Synonyms for Works Synonyms for Works Synonyms for Works By Mark Nichol Several words available to writers seeking to succinctly refer to the entirety of a person’s artistic or literary works are listed and described in this post. Canon, often confused with cannon, is from the Greek noun kanon, â€Å"meaning rule,† and has multiple meanings. In this context, it refers to a body of works generally accepted or approved as categorized together. As the word pertains to franchises of content in multiple media within popular culture, such as Star Wars films, television series, books, and so on, it is used to describe a piece of content or an element within such content that is considered authentic, as opposed to a work or an element thereof not (or no longer) authorized or sanctioned by the copyright holder, or a parody, or a piece of fan fiction (unsolicited, freely distributed amateur-produced content). A similar word is corpus, which has several meanings but refers in this context to the body of work produced by a writer or all the works that pertain to a particular subject or category; the word, directly borrowed from Latin, means â€Å"body† and is cognate with corporal, corporation, corps, corpse, and other words. Opus, from the Latin word for â€Å"work† (also the basis of operate), most often refers to a single musical composition or a set of compositions- opera is, along with opuses, simply a plural form of opus- but it also applies loosely to one work or all works by an artist or a writer. The artistic or literary effort considered the best produced by a particular person is referred to as his or her magnum opus; that phrase, directly adopted from Latin, means â€Å"great work.† A related word is oeuvre, the French descendant of opera; it pertains to the body of works produced by a particular artist or writer. (Oeuvre is the basis of â€Å"hors d’oeuvre,† directly taken from the French synonym for appetizers; the phrase literally means â€Å"outside the work,† referring to the fact that such delicacies are traditionally served before the first course of a meal or between courses.) Output is a prosaic synonym describing what has been put out, or produced, by someone. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Avoid Beginning a Sentence with â€Å"With†Latin Plural EndingsProverb vs. Adage

Sunday, February 16, 2020

TURING AND AL Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

TURING AND AL - Essay Example What is the significance of this thought experiment? Turing’s game paves the way towards a defense of artificial intelligence. He continues explaining what machines are, their role in his experiment, and the universality of digital computers. Then he raises his initial question again and claims: â€Å"The original question, â€Å"can machines think?† I believe to be too meaningless to deserve a discussion† (Turing 324). Then he puts forth all his beliefs about the matter, which pointed to the fact that machines can indeed think. Hereafter, he discusses all the arguments that oppose his beliefs. The first of the objections is the theological objection (Turing 324-325), followed by the heads in the sand objection (Turing 325), then the argument from consciousness (Turing 325-326), arguments from various disabilities (Turing 326-327), lady Lovelace’s objection (Turing 327), and finally, the argument form informality of behavior (Turing 327-328). Towards the e nd, he does not defend his view from these objections, but tells the reader that his belief will transpire towards the end of the century, due to current problems in programming, engineering, mindset, education and experience (Turing 329). As Turing concludes: â€Å"We can only see a short distance ahead, but we can see plenty there that needs to be done† (Turing 330). Work Cited Turing, Alan.

Sunday, February 2, 2020

B2B Exchanges and Supply Chain Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

B2B Exchanges and Supply Chain - Assignment Example Supply webs (or vortals) serve industry sectors by integrating the supply chain systems of various buyers and sellers creating virtual trading communities (Turban et al, 2006). An example of how B2B exchanges might operate is shown in fFigure 4. E-marketplace operators hoped to create a true value-added experience for their customers (marketplace participants) and to reach the aspired scale (Schneider, 2000). [I do not understand what the previous phrase means] Currently, B2B exchange platforms can support whole trading networks from the planningprocurement of the raw materials upthrough to to the sellingsale to the final customer, supporting new structures and relationships in the supply chain (Hayes, 2005). [You should use an example of these structures/relationships to make your meaning more clear] Thus, the value proposition of B2B exchanges can move away from price minimization towards cost optimization through improved efficiencies and tightened coordination between buyers and sellers. According to Lejmi (2005) researchdefines, supply chain management (SCM) involves as the coordination of both online and traditional delivery channels. This includes the settlement phase of each transaction on e-marketplaces, which must be taken into consideration when planning demand and supply in a given network. On the other hand, e-marketplaces can be used as supplementary channels to the efforts to get rid ofto ameliorate inefficiencies in the supply chain in order to remove excess inventory. B2B exchanges, which are centralized systems, can build the basis for SCM. Moreover they allow solving two of the major problems faced by SCM systems: discontinuities in the information flow and the lack of trust among the different partners (Knolmayer et al, 1999). Figure 5 describes different types of B2B exchanges offering different advantages for the participating companies and can support specific SCM functionalities in different ways. The private exchange1 could be the most useful type for introducing the supply chain optimization between member companies. This type of e-marketplaces enables a companyan organization with dominant position in the supply chain to strengthen the collaboration and synchronization with its trading partners. The mostA knownwell known example among of a private exchanges would beis Dell's eHub accessible from Valuechain.dell.com from Dell. Figure 5: B2B exchanges support for SCM functionality Source: Lejmi, 2005 B2B applications are offered online so they can serve as supply chain enablers that offer distinct competitive advantages. Hoffman et al (2002) argues that various B2B types have different effect on supply chain relationships. B2B prA ivateprivate B2B e-marketplace provideprovidess a companyan organization with high supply chain power and high capabilities for online interactions. This is basically how much bargaining and control power a companyan organization has. On the other hand, joining a public e-marketplace, provides a businessan organization with high buying and selling capabilities, but will result in low supply chain power. Companies that choose an intermediary to do their buying and selling

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Procurement And Inventory Management At Green Chilly Management Essay

Procurement And Inventory Management At Green Chilly Management Essay The Company GREEN CHILLY is a restaurant chain operating in the UK. It runs several restaurants for takeaway meals and for people that will stop and sit down for lunch or during any other time of the day. The special approach of that restaurant chain is that to a high extend they source healthy food from local suppliers so pointing out their environmental responsibility. On the other hand they use a lot of other products that will be sourced by the central procurement organization. The company has 53 restaurants all over the UK. Altogether they serve around 16.000 meals every day. In addition they have around 23.000 customers stopping for smaller snacks. The restaurant chain is facing certain seasonality due to holiday seasons and weather conditions influencing customer preferences. Green Chilly faces some issues due to their successful growth in recent years: There is no structured procurement process in place. Quality issues with some fresh products (e.g. salads, vegetables) due to different local supplier performance have been identified. Prices for raw materials are assumed to be significant above the average. Shortages of some promotion meals have been identified. 1. Procurement Process Develop a structure for the sourcing process that the company will define for the procurement process. Which processes are especially relevant for production material (e.g. supplier selection, volume forecasting). Give examples. Discuss which processes of the strategic procurement process would be very relevant for either for food or for non-food (e.g. MRO, restaurant equipment, facility management) supply categories. 2. Supplier Selection Develop a decision making example of the selection of a supplier for one supply category. Discuss the differences between monetary and non-monetary criteria and include this in your decision problem. Describe the steps of your calculation and discuss, how sensitive is your solution against changing supplier performance. Set up the data for potential suppliers. 3. Supplier Qualification How could the company improve supplier co-operation and what would you consider as a program for supplier relationship management. Thinking of the food business what could be done by the restaurant chain to qualify suppliers and create closer relations. Try to investigate and illustrate best practices e.g. from fast food chains. Table of Contents Procurement and Inventory Management 2 COMPLETION DATE 2 PLEASE NOTE 2 CASE GREEN CHILLY 3 The key facts are: 3 Green Chilly faces some issues due to their successful growth in recent years: 3 1. Procurement Process 4 Develop a structure for the sourcing process that the company will define for the procurement process. Which processes are especially relevant for production material (e.g. supplier selection, volume forecasting). Give examples. Discuss which processes of the strategic procurement process would be very relevant for either for food or for non-food (e.g. MRO, restaurant equipment, facility management) supply categories. 4 2. Supplier Selection 4 Develop a decision making example of the selection of a supplier for one supply category. Discuss the differences between monetary and non-monetary criteria and include this in your decision problem. Describe the steps of your calculation and discuss, how sensitive is your solution against changing supplier performance. Set up the data for potential suppliers. 4 3. Supplier Qualification 4 How could the company improve supplier co-operation and what would you consider as a program for supplier relationship management. Thinking of the food business what could be done by the restaurant chain to qualify suppliers and create closer relations. Try to investigate and illustrate best practices e.g. from fast food chains. 4 Table of Contents 5 Question 1 6 Introduction 6 1 Procurement/ Sourcing Process 7 Kasavana (2004) stated, that the procurement process is a demanding, elaborate process, which requires knowledge buyers, capable sellers and thorough set of inventory and audit procedures. This is especially true in restaurants where the procurement function should ensure JIT (just in time) deliveries and high quality standards since its primary product (raw materials) have a short life cycle. 7 2 Strategic Procurement Process and Production Material Processes 9 2.1 Procurement Strategy and Organizational Development 9 2.2 Make or Buy, Segmentation of Supply Categories and Strategic Planning of the Procurement Volume 10 Figure 3. Pareto Analysis 11 2.3 Supplier Selection Process 12 2.4 Strategic Alliances/Closing Contracts 13 2.5 Strategic Supplier Relationship Management 13 2.5 Supplier Qualification and Development 14 The sub processes include identification of strategic suppliers, gap analysis of requirements expected by suppliers, a program for training and improving suppliers and monitoring the performance of the suppliers. 14 2.6 Procurement Policies and Guidelines Definition, Organizational Effectiveness/Efficiency Improvement 15 3 Strategic Procurement Processes that are relevant for either food or non food supply categories 16 Conclusion 17 References 18 Bibliography 19 Question 3 19 Introduction 19 1 Improvement of Supplier Cooperation and Supplier Relationship Management Program 20 2 Supplier Qualification and Creation of Closer Relationships 26 Conclusion 27 References 28 Bibliography 29 Question 1 Introduction Purchasing has evolved in the past years from a passive buyer of goods and services to an active contributor that is essential to an organizations competitive advantage (Cavinato 1999). Procurement is viewed by organizations as the activity of purchasing goods/materials and services at minimum cost, transporting them and moving them towards the production process. Procurement also covers a wider area, and may include activities such as material supervision and management as inventory control, traffic receiving, incoming inspection, and salvage operations (Laakmann and KÃ ¶hler 2010). Procurement in organizations has evolved from its traditional transactional function towards a role that incorporates strategic partnerships, cooperative alliances and supply network planning. Therefore procurement strategies can be seen as means in achieving comparative advantage and long-term strategic goals (Tassabehji and Moorehouse 2008). The procurement process incorporates both primary and a support activity, such as the procurement of direct and indirect material and at the present time also involves strategic planning (Simchi-Levi and Kaminsky 2003). Consequently, procurement processes have developed in to strategic procurement process that aids the organization to achieve strategic and operational objectives. In the next section Green Chillys structure of its sourcing process that will be used by the organization as its procurement processes will be developed and elaborated as which processes of the strategic procurement process are relevant for either food or non food supply categories. 1 Procurement/ Sourcing Process Kasavana (2004) stated, that the procurement process is a demanding, elaborate process, which requires knowledge buyers, capable sellers and thorough set of inventory and audit procedures. This is especially true in restaurants where the procurement function should ensure JIT (just in time) deliveries and high quality standards since its primary product (raw materials) have a short life cycle. In order to maintain costs and increase productivity, purchasing practises in restaurants need to be controlled. An inefficient purchasing order could lead to inflated costs of goods that could have a negative effect on the organizations bottom line (Kim and Shunk 2003) For these reasons, Green Chilly should structure a procurement process that may result in the improvement of effectiveness and efficiency and also cost savings. Activities that are usually involved in the procurement function and could be incorporated by Green Chilly include (Monczka, Trent and Handfield 1998): Commodity analysis Market research Purchase order tracking and follow up Determination of needs and specification for inter -firm customer Transmitting forecast of future needs to suppliers Supplier performance measurement Management of suppliers quality Contract management and negotiation Management of inbound/outbound transportation Price cost analysis Employing best practices in procurement certifies that Green Chilly shall make the correct decisions. In order to do so Green Chilly should align the procurement process with the organizations strategic goals and objectives. These objectives if suitable, can be achieved by sourcing strategies that rely on a clear set of tactical procedures to ensure implementation (Sollish and Semanik 1999). The focus of the organizations sourcing strategies is to integrate supplier capabilities with the organizations process in order to achieve comparative advantage. The activities that are associated with sourcing strategies include (Monczka, Trent and Handfield 1998): Supplier identification Supplier evaluation and selection Supplier management Supplier development and improvement Supplier integration to ongoing processes Consequently, the procurement function covers both the operational procurement of materials and services and the administration management of sources of supply. Therefore, Green Chilly should take into consideration the critical importance of the links between the strategic and operational tasks of the procurement process, as indicated in figure 1 (Laakmann and KÃ ¶hler 2010). Figure 1. Strategic and Operational Procurement The strategic procurement system is based on two main pillars that are the sourcing system and the strategic partnerships. These pillars are the framework for the operational sourcing process that shall be based in developing the sourcing process which will later be expanded in Green Chillys procurement process, as indicated in figure 2 (Laakmann and KÃ ¶hler 2010). Figure 2. Main Pillars of Strategic Procurement 2 Strategic Procurement Process and Production Material Processes The strategic procurement process is adapted from Laakmann and KÃ ¶hler (2010) for the use of this report and the steps of the process that is proposed for Green Chilly to incorporate for its procurement process are further expanded in the following sections. All of the below processes are relevant for the production of materials as each of the processes such as supplier selection, evaluation, procurement strategy and so on, as shall be indicated, play a critical role in the decision making and execution of producing materials. 2.1 Procurement Strategy and Organizational Development The first step in the development of Green Chillys procurement process is the establishment of a procurement strategy. In order for Green Chillys procurement strategy to be successful it has to incorporate the needs of the organization and to be in consistency with their internal capabilities as well as the competitive advantage that is to be achieved through the overall business strategy (Monczka, Trent and Handfield 1998). Therefore Green Chillys procurement/purchasing activities need to be consistent with the business strategy and make a proactive contribution the creation of corporate values and plans. The sub processes that fall under this category are the identification of needs, the definition of the procurement task, and the purchasing business system. As already established, procurement arises when the organization recognizes the need for materials/services and so on. When the need is recognised the organization should then release a material requirement to its supplier. The organization should make sure that inventory is always restocked. An issue has already been identified, where Green Chilly is experiencing some shortages in its promotional meals. In order to solve this issue a more accurate forecast of demand could be embedded based on historical trends. Various procurement strategies are employed by organizations to deal with different situations. In the case of Green Chilly, based on the information given by the case study, where quality issues with some fresh products and above average prices on raw materials are experienced, the organization could take under consideration two types of procurement strategies: long term supplier relationships and the total cost of ownership. In accordance to the first strategy (which shall be further expanded in the following sections) Green Chilly could establish long-term relationships with selected suppliers following a supply base optimization process. The outcome of this strategy is the it could enable Green Chilly to increase volumes of raw materials to reduce product cost, improve quality (by cooperating with suppliers) increase delivery performance etc. (Monczka, Trent and Handfield 1998). In accordance to the second strategy, total cost measurement could lead to better decision making as it identifies all the cost associated with purchasing decision and with supplier non performance. Cost variances can be analyzed such as in the case of Green Chilly, increase in prices and quality issues and try to find solutions (Monczka, Trent and Handfield 1998). The output of this process is the functional procurement strategic objectives, definition of the procurement tasks and policies, where procurement tasks can involve supplier selection and negotiation of contracts, specifications of the quality and delivery arrangements and price for inventory for a given volume or period time etc (Bradbury et. al. 2010), supplier cooperation model, and the decision requests for the general management. 2.2 Make or Buy, Segmentation of Supply Categories and Strategic Planning of the Procurement Volume In this category the sub processes include analysis of products, value chain and sourced volumes, make or buy strategy and strategic forecast of purchasing demand. Make or buy can apply to Green Chilly on the grounds that if the company would prefer to buy for example ready made packages of raw materials (salad package of various greens) or make it, based on whether it is financially profitable. Green Chillys forecasting demand can be based on historical volume trends and quantity as well as taking under consideration the seasonality that the restaurants operates, forecasts can additionally be made in accordance to last years sales to establish a pattern, when possible, of seasonality. As already established, Green Chilly is experiencing an issue with higher prices of raw materials and quality issues. In order to solve this issue, higher volumes of raw materials can be ordered (or based on the long term suppliers relationships better prices can be negotiated and quality standards) to decrease the unit cost. Since Green Chillys primary product are raw materials that have a short life expectancy the cost of carrying inventory is not advisable. Green Chilly could use the central procurement organization to negotiate better prices for such products. In regards the environmental responsibility the company wishes to maintain, it could attempt to source from local suppliers where economically affordable. In this category Green Chilly should take into account supply categories, demand forecasts, make or buy strategy, sales plan and product portfolio. The organization could use the Pareto analysis (figure 3) (Bradbury et. al. 2010) to aid them prioritise procurement activities and create a product portfolio by classifying products into A B C categories, and also decide which products can be sourced from the central procurement and which from the locals suppliers. Figure 3. Pareto Analysis Class A products are one-for-one basis, class C items can be ordered in large batches and class B products are somewhere in between. Green Chilly could for example, purchase class A products directly from local suppliers in order to ensure delivery and negotiate prices and let the central procurement organization purchase class C products to ensure better prices and vice versa. By using the Pareto analysis the organization can classify all its products and create a product portfolio that will aid Green Chilly in its decision making. The output of this process is that supply categories are defined, a structure is set, a make or buy decision is formulated and purchasing is forecasted as is the sourcing of demand. 2.3 Supplier Selection Process The sub processes of this category include supplier identification, supplier pre-selection, supplier selection and supplier contract. Figure 4 shows the funnel model of supplier identification and selection by Laakmann and KÃ ¶hler (2010) that Green Chilly could use. Figure 4. Funnel Model of Supplier Identification and Selection In this procurement process consideration should be applied to the supply market, the sourcing and procurement strategies/policies, suppliers cooperation models as well as the evaluation and audit of the results. Firstly, Green Chilly has to evaluate the requirements that are needed and also try to evaluate its sourcing requirements from suppliers that can include supplier quality (Green Chillys quality issues), cost competitiveness (increase in raw materials cost), potential delivery performances and technological capabilities (Zenz 1994). Then, Green Chilly has to gather and analyze information about potential suppliers. There are various methods to locate potential suppliers such as business directories, online search engines and many more. With the growing efficiency and increased interactivity provided by the web Green Chilly could establish e-procurement for a more effective product search, rapid data interchange from e-market places and e-hubs (Kasavana 2004). Once the research focus is established and suppliers are identified, a candidate list is created as well as a database with the information about the supply markets for future reference. A first cut based on the preliminary evaluation can then be performed to narrow the list of potential suppliers before conducting an in-depth evaluation. This can be based on criteria such as financial risk analysis, evaluation of previous and current supplier performance (Sollish and Semanik 1999). Additionally a further evaluation can be carried out based on criteria such as price, quality, delivery, responsiveness, capability and competitive value and many more (Zenz 1994; Lamming and Cox 1999). Suppliers ability to respond to specifications or the scope of the work can be investigated by an on site visit to inspect the suppliers facility and establish if the supplier qualifies to meet requirements. Additionally the suppliers operational capacity, technical capability and financial ability should be taken under consideration (Solish and Semanik 1999). Once the suppliers are selected and audited then negotiations can be conducted and agreements could be executed depending on the success of the negotiations and by providing performance feedback. 2.4 Strategic Alliances/Closing Contracts To create strategic alliances Green Chilly has to clarify its supply category and determine the required degree of cooperation. Establishing close ties with suppliers and increasing investment in value chain partners encourages trust, dependability and cooperation amongst the supply chain partners. Strategic alliances could lead to competitive advantage by revenue gains and cost savings (Chen, Paulraj and Ludo 2004). Furthermore, once the requirments are determineed, agreements should be negotiated and developed and measures of performance should be established. 2.5 Strategic Supplier Relationship Management The sub processes of Supplier Relationship Management (SRM) include the types of relationships the organization has to decide, definition of the organizations processes for SRM and establish a communication system and IT solutions for collaboration. Working closely with a few selected suppliers and establishing collaborative relationships Green Chilly can gain performance advantages. By sharing information with suppliers and communicating knowledge competitive advantage can result. Buyer-seller communication could establish trust for Green Chillys supply base, which can result in minimizing suppliers costs (raw materials) due to better negotiations of prices because of long-term contracts, an increase in quality standards and better evaluation of performance to increase quality as well as technological insights (Chen, Paulraj and Ludo 2004). Green Chilly can use IT collaborative solution software to improve communication with suppliers and gain new revenue while reducing operational cost (Kim and Shunk 2003). By automating more SRM functions, Green Chilly could reduce the levels of transactional activities and gain efficiency. The output of this process is to establish the types of relationships with suppliers, the activities for SRM, availability of sourcing/supplier information and collaborative processes for procurement planning. 2.5 Supplier Qualification and Development The sub processes include identification of strategic suppliers, gap analysis of requirements expected by suppliers, a program for training and improving suppliers and monitoring the performance of the suppliers. Effective supplier development for Green Chilly could begin by determining the appropriate numbers of strategic suppliers; by performing a supply base optimization Green Chilly could identify those suppliers (Monczka, Trent and Handfield 1998). This should be an ongoing process that shall help the organization to evaluate the best suppliers and try to develop strategic alliances with. Additionally, by establishing a supply network Green Chilly could qualify the appropriate suppliers that it wishes to do business with and by setting appropriate performance indicators decide which suppliers are suitable for their development program. A development program for suppliers that Green Chilly could incorporate is to work directly with suppliers to improve performance since the organization is experiencing quality problems with the performance of suppliers. By working closely with suppliers Green Chilly could assist in quality improvements and measurement techniques on how to identify and eliminate problems. Additionally, performance improvements that could be established are cost reduction (raw materials), delivery and scheduling improvements (shortfalls in promotional meals. For example Green Chilly could work with suppliers to develop a JIT purchasing and manufacturing system since the primary product of the organization is raw materials that have a low life expectancy such a development will be beneficial. The outcomes will be a better understanding from both parties, improved processes and delivery performance. 2.6 Procurement Policies and Guidelines Definition, Organizational Effectiveness/Efficiency Improvement In this category the sub processes that Green Chilly should follow are the evaluation of the procurement tasks and processes as well as the corporate policies and the development of a standard for operating procedures by giving a detailed description of the functional duties or steps for a specific task. Additionally a continuing improvement program should be established, a skill matrix for staff should be developed and an internal and external communication. Significant procurement policies for Green Chilly are for example the quality issues it experiences from local suppliers performance and the above average cost with raw materials. For a restaurant quality issues are critical in maintaining the restaurants credibility and customer loyalty (Zenz 1994). As already mentioned by collaborating with selected suppliers Green Chilly can deal with such issues by development programs or cooperation and selection of new suppliers. The outcome of this process will be the operational policies and management ethics, training and continuous improvement structures and the established sourcing process. Figure 5 indicates based on the above already discussed Green Chillys sourcing process that will be used as its procurement process. Figure 5. Green Chillys Procurement Process 3 Strategic Procurement Processes that are relevant for either food or non food supply categories Green Chillys procurement can de divided into the procurement of direct and indirect products. Indirect products/services are commodity items that are used in the day-to-day operations (MRO, IT equipment, services, capital equipment, facility management etc), direct goods include raw materials that are used to create finished products (http://www.clarity-consulting.com Accessed: 01/03/10). In this section the above processes of the strategic procurement process relevant for food and non-food supply categories of Green Chilly will be indicated. In the procurement strategy process where the organization requirements are identified and policies and tasks of the procurement process are formulated, it does not seem to be very relevant for food and non-food supply category. However the procurement strategy is the base for the purchasing strategy and it is where Green Chily shall make decisions on sourcing, whether to pursue contracts versus spot buying and suppliers recruitment plan and model. Therefore it can be argued that it is relevant for both the supply categories. In the make-or-buy and strategic planning of procurement and volume Green Chilly has to decide which materials is going to produce in house or source, and at what volumes by forecasting demand, thereof it is the organizations sourcing strategy. This process is the most relevant for both food and non-food categories. Make-or-buy decisions are usually very simple. Most organizations source production equipment, MRO supplies, capital equipment and services because they cannot manufacture them as well as raw materials where in the case of Green Chilly the primary (direct) products is the latter. Furthermore, the suppliers selection process and the strategic alliances process are considered very relevant for the food supply category. This is due to the fact that in these sub processes Green Chilly has to select the appropriate suppliers based on performance requirements such as quality cost effectiveness, delivery performance etc and establish cooperative relationships and strategic alliances with the selected suppliers. Due to the fact that Green Chillys primary product is raw materials price, quality and availability are of critical importance and this is dependent on the suppliers. Moreover, supplier relationship management process and qualification and development of suppliers process where the company has to develop trust relationships where open flow of information should be established in aiding the organization achieve comparative advantage by developing and qualifying suppliers that would provide Green Chilly with quality products and no replenishments based on contingency supply plans, this sub process is considered very relevant for food supply categories. Finally the procurement policies and organizational improvement process is considered very relevant for both food and non food supply categories as it is the stage where the organization evaluates its processes and tries to determine if good practices were applied or if improvement of the processes is required. Conclusion Green Chillys issues with suppliers quality, above average prices of raw materials and shortfalls in promotional meals could be resolved with the appropriate procurement process as established above. By creating a procurement policy where the sourcing process can establish efficiencies and effectiveness to select, develop and control partnerships with suppliers and thus create strategic alliances and overcome the issues as well as decisions on which is the most appropriate solution for sourcing, either it be form the central procurement organization or directly from local suppliers, shall aid Green Chilly in accomplishing its strategic objectives and goals. Thus, a strategic procurement process is vital to the successful performance of the organization. Furthermore by clarifying which supply categories, food or non-food, are relevant to the sub processes of the strategic procurement process shall assist Green Chilly to improve operational performance by making procurement tasks more uncomplicated and repeatable. It is highly advisable that Green Chilly should engage in e-procurement to enjoy online economies such as effective product search process, improved needs matching, rapid data interchange, lower transaction costs, enhance productivity, vendor relations, improved pricing and customer relationship management (Kasavana 2004). References Bradbury, K., Hill, J., Whicker, L., and Malins,M. (2010), Logistcs and Operation Management, Module Notes, WMG Cavinato, L.J. (1998), Fitting purchasing to the five stages of strategic management URL:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURLHYPERLINK http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL_udi=B6VGR-3WRBWC0-2_user=10_coverDate=06/30/1999_rdoc=1_fmt=high_orig=search_sort=d_docanchor=view=c_searchStrId=1238910197_rerunOrigin=google_acct=C000050221_version=1_urlVersion=0HYPERLINK http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL_udi=B6VGR-3WRBWC0-2_user=10_coverDate=06/30/1999_rdoc=1_fmt=high_orig=search_sort=d_docanchor=view=c_searchStrId=1238910197_rerunOrigin=google_acct=C000050221_version=1_urlVersion=0_udi=B6VGR-3WRBWC0-2HYPERLINK http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL_udi=B6VGR-3WRBWC0-2_user=10_coverDate=06/30/1999_rdoc=1_fmt=high_orig=search_sort=d_docanchor=view=c_searchStrId=1238910197_rerunOrigin=google_acct=C000050221_version=1_urlVersion=0HYPERLINK http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL_udi=B6VGR-3WRBWC0-2_user=10_coverDate=06/30/199 9_rdoc=1_fmt=high_orig=search_sort=d_docanchor=view=c_searchStrId=1238910197_rerunOrigin=google_acct=C000050221_version=1_urlVersion=0_user=10HYPERLINK http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL_udi=B6VGR-3WRBWC0-2_user=10_coverDate=06/30/1999_rdoc=1_fmt=high_orig=search_sort=d_docanchor=view=c_searchStrId=1238910197_rerunOrigin=google_acct=C000050221_version=1_urlVersion=0HYPERLINK http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL_udi=B6VGR-3WRBWC0-2_user=10_coverDate=06/30/1999_rdoc=1_fmt=high_orig=search_sort=d_docanchor=view=c_searchStrId=1238910197_rerunOrigin=google_acct=C000050221_version=1_urlVersion=0_coverDate=06%2F30%2F1999HYPERLINK http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL_udi=B6VGR-3WRBWC0-2_user=10_coverDate=06/30/1999_rdoc=1_fmt=high_orig=search_sort=d_docanchor=view=c_searchStrId=1238910197_rerunOrigin=google_acct=C000050221_version=1_u

Friday, January 17, 2020

Blade Runner and Frankenstein: A Comparison

Texts, in order to effectively convey a message, commonly reflect on social views, attitudes and contextual values. A comparison between Ridley Scotts sci-fi thriller â€Å"Blade Runner: the Directors Cut† and the Mary Shelley’s classic gothic novel â€Å"Frankenstein† will reveal that there are elements of human nature which will remain constant over time. These two texts reflect of the possibility of scientific and technological development and caution about possible physical and moral consequences of this development.The seductive nature of knowledge is explored in both texts as the fine line that separates man and monster is revealed as our capacity for true human emotion is questioned. As a critique of scientific and enlightened rationalism, Shelley’s gothic text â€Å"Frankenstein† explores the duality of the human condition as man is capable of both good and evil. Walton’s letters portray man’s capacity for arrogance and moral b lindness and foreshadow the subsequent folly committed by Dr Frankenstein. The sun is for ever visible, its broad disk just skirting the horizon, and diffusing a perpetual splendor† Walton’s romantic ideals are juxtaposed with his own arrogance as he refers to Shakespeare’s play Macbeth â€Å"but success shall crown my endeavors. Wherefore not? † Shelley’s intertextual allusion to Macbeth portrays the arrogance Walton holds about his voyages success. Just as Macbeth was ambition, so to does Walton lose his moral direction on his question for discovery. This aptitude is characteristic of romantic writers in the 1700’s who similarly used to romantic writing styles to contrast mans moral blindness.Similarly, Ridley Scott also explores the moral blindness of humans as the pragmatism of the 80’s is reflected though the loss of god in the dystopian 2019 Los Angles. Through corporate prosperity, Scott suggests that god has been replaced by th e creator, Tyrell. â€Å"Nothing the god of bio-mechanics wouldn’t let you in heaven for† the direct allusion of Tyrell to â€Å"the god of bio-mechanics† reflects that Tyrell, as the owner of the supreme corporation on earth has been elevated to a god like status, reflecting the importance of corporate dominance in the 80’s.As Roy confronts Tyrell, the creator plays with an extravagant, human like chess set, symbolic of his god like status over humans. Tyrell’s eyes are hidden behind the glare of his glasses as he peers over the figures, his tone as he confronts Roy is arrogant as he states â€Å"the light that burns twice as bright, burns half as long, and you have burned so bright† the objectification of Roy dehumanizes and belittles the replicant and portrays Tyrell’s control and dominance over humanity. Humanity has been embedded with the capacity to celebrate the divinity of nature and this appreciation of the natural world is a key element of the human spirit.Shelley’s text â€Å"Frankenstein† reflects the Romantic’s pantheistic view of god and nature as the two are inextricably linked. The Romantic belief that god is revealed through the natural world is shown as Frankenstein takes solace in the sublime beauty of nature. â€Å"The vary winds whispered in soothing accents, and maternal nature bade me weep no more† the personification of the wind and comparison of natural to a mother reflects the romantic influences over Shelley as nature is portrayed as divine and splendid. Similarly, other characters in the novel also marvel at the magnificence of nature.Walton, in his letters, reflects on the beauty of the Artic on his voyage â€Å"Sailing over a calm sea, we may be wafted to a land surpassing in wonders and in beauty every region hitherto discovered on the habitable globe† Walton fascination with the discovery and exploration of the Artic also reproduces Shelleyâ€⠄¢s romantic ideals, reflecting the romantic writers common pre-occupation with the unspoiled domain of the artic. The dangers of circumventing the natural order are also explored in Ridley Scotts â€Å"Blade Runner: The Directors Cut†. The text reflects how nature has been compromised for industrial profit of transnational corporations.The soaring oblique camera angle and the hellish image of fire, works with the dramatic, eerie music at the beginning of the film to suggest the capitalistic world has destroyed the natural world for the creation of profit. The film noir technique used throughout the film adds a sense of lifelessness to the Los Angles environment and offers contrast to Frankenstein, where nature is respected and revered. Scott uses his text to didactically warn the audience about the degradation of the natural environment as the capitalist world of Los Angles and the on world colony has become degraded urban sprawl devoid of natural life.In Blade Runner, the n atural world is represented by the breakdown of the physical environment. In Frankenstein, the natural world is broken down morally as the creator defies the natural order. Ultimately both texts caution against the perception that all progress is beneficial. Shelley’s Frankenstein and Ridley Scotts Blade Runner each challenge human supremacy as the created is portrayed as moral, emotionally and physically superior to their creator. The Replicants in Scotts Blade Runner challenge this Darwinian view of human supremacy as, in contrast to the humans of LA 2019; they are emotive, compassionate and moral. All those moments will be lost in time, like tears in rain† the raw emotion shown by Roy as his image is silhouetted against filtered blue light life reflects the elements of humanity that have been lost in the dystopic world as the replicants are the only beings capable of true emotive, human behavior. Similarly, Shelley’s Frankenstein portrays the reversal of the D arwinian Theory with Frankenstein creating a being superior physically and emotionally to man.Shelley uses the Romantic belief of the loss of innocence, shown in the inter-textual allusion to Milton’s â€Å"Paradise lost† as the monster is portrayed as benevolent and being capable of both compassion and love, similar to man before his expulsion from the Garden of Eden. â€Å"I ought to be thy Adam; but I am rather the fallen angel, whom thou drivest from joy for no misdeed† the biblical allusion to Adam and the Devil portray the monsters human elements as he is shown as compassionate, intelligent and munificent â€Å"I was benevolent and good, misery made me a fiend† contrasting Frankenstein who seems incapable of showing human emotion.Shelley uses the rivalry between Victor and his Creature to reflect the hostility between the devil and god in Milton’s epic poem â€Å"Paradise lost†, Shelley was influenced by her husbands writing on the poe m and used his general interpretation to present the antagonism between Frankenstein and his monster.Despite the different contexts of both Shelly’s Frankenstein and Scott’s Blade Runner, each texts reflects similar themes and a further knowledge and greater understanding of context enables the reader to hold a deeper appreciation of the texts. Both texts challenge our assumption that knowledge is beneficial and expose the physical and moral consequences of circumventing the natural order. However the two texts question our more primal practices as each they question to what extent our human nature has remained the same.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

The Fifth Amendment Self-Incrimination In The Fifth...

Unfortunately, the Supreme Court denied a new trial as the ruling was final and be considered double jeopardy. The third clause of the Fifth Amendment is Self-Incrimination, stating â€Å"No person...shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself....†. This clause specifies that a person cannot be forced to testify against himself or herself; yet, this does not limited police-interrogation. A testimonial through threatened loss of government employment or guilt from silence can be used as evidence. Witnesses and evidence must be presented during the trial. This is often known as taking the fifth. One of the most historical cases in regards to the Fifth Amendment is Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966). In March†¦show more content†¦The clause denotes â€Å"No person shall...be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law....†. Furthermore, there are four measures of the clause, which are a procedural due process, substantive due process, the prohibition against vague laws, and vehicle for the incorporation of the Bill of Rights. Procedural due process is when the government is required to forward process in dispossessing a person’s life, liberty, or property. Substantive due process is the process that of the person’s fundamental right. Vague prohibition is when the court determined of the laws is vague or not. Incorporation of the Bill of Rights is the role the doctrine plays in a person’s rights. Board of Regents of State Colleges v. Roth, 408 U.S. 564 (1972) is an example of the Due Process Clause. David Roth was employed at Wisconsin State University. After Roth contract end, the school informed Roth that his contract was not up for renewal. The school did not provide Roth with a reason; consequently, Roth filed a claim. The ruling stated that although Roth is owed an explanation for not rehiring him, Roth’s right was not violated. Roth does not have any property rights. Another important case that is an example of Due Process Clause is Roe v. Wade (1973). Jane Roe was seeking an abortion in the state of Texas. Since abortion was a felony Lee 7 unless ‘on medical advice for the purpose of saving the life of the mother’. Roe filed a claim against Wade, statingShow MoreRelatedThe Fifth Amendment and Self-Incrimination842 Words   |  4 PagesThe fifth amendment states that, â€Å"No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, libertyRead MoreFour Basic Components of the Fifth Amendment1382 Words   |  5 PagesThe Fifth Amendment Clearly define the four basic components of the Fifth Amendment The four basic components of the Fifth Amendment include: double jeopardy, due process, the right to be heard by a jury and safeguards against self-incrimination. 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This is why I d like to show why pleading the 5th is not an incriminating phrase by giving the history of the 5th amendment, how the Miranda rights came into play, and a case where this theory of automatic guilt was disproven. The right against self-incrimination stems as far back as 17th century England when Puritans refused to cooperate with interrogators while being tortured to expel their religious beliefs. While the Puritans may haveRead MoreThe Fifth Amendment and The Bill of Rights654 Words   |  3 Pagestime of the murder, he or she has the right to remain silent in order to protect him or herself from self-incrimination, a clause in the Fifth Amendment. The Fifth Amendment upholds the rights of United States citizens against government prosecution. Introduced to the Bill of Rights in 1789, the Fifth Amendment is a noteworthy amendment both during the past and in today’s world. The Fifth Amendment, along with the rest of the Bill of Rights, was proposed by James Madison, providing a way for theRead MoreThe Bill of Rights: The Most Important Documents in American History1579 Words   |  6 PagesRights into the Constitution, Congress did not approve the inclusion of twelve Amendments, or Twelve Articles, until September 25, 1789 (History of the Bill of Rights, 2012). While the first two amendments were rejected, the first ten Amendments of the Constitution make of the United States Bill of Rights. The Bill of Rights was formally ratified on December 15, 1791 (Independence Hall Association, 2012). The First Amendment protects an individuals freedom of speech and assembly and states, CongressRead MoreFifth Amendment Privilege : Taking The Fifth1657 Words   |  7 PagesThe Fifth Amendment Privilege: taking the Fifth The Fifth Amendment is located within the constitution of the United States of America. It consists of five well know clauses. Amendment V states: â€Å"No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same